Key Elements to Working with each of the 16 myers Briggs Personality Types

ESTJ

Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging

via GIPHY

Description

ESTJs are responsible, realistic, and conventional. Their primary function is Extraverted Thinking while their auxiliary function is Introverted Sensing. This allows them to recognize concrete needs and remember data in detail. They are more focused on linking the past to the present. They use logic and traditional principles to guide them through life. They are quick to come up with a plan and finish it off. They place importance on closure. Because of this, they may take on leadership roles. They are self-confident and assertive. They may be perceived as critical and harsh, but this is only to ensure their plan works out (Butt “ESTJ”).

 

ESTJs are direct and honest and take their role seriously and are known as “model citizens.” They thrive on order and continuity. Community is crucial to the ESTJ. They love spending time with family and friends. They learn best in situations where objectives are established (as well as details) so they can plan ahead. Thus, they are good with deadline.

 

ESTJ weaknesses include their general inability to adapt to new environments. They can be too demanding and fail to recognize other people’s opinions and feelings. This is because they have a set value system. They may also come across as too bossy (“Portrait of an ESTJ”).

 

Careers

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • Be open and honest with the
  • Do be organized, ESTJs are impatient with
  • Do not criticize the ESTJ’s values.
  • Offer constructive

 

 

 

ESFJ

Extraverted Sensing Feeling Judging

via GIPHY

 

Description

ESFJs are friendly, practical, and organized. The primary function is Extraverted Feeling which makes them extremely capable of expressing their emotions. Their auxiliary function is Introverted Sensing, in which outside data is taken in and compared with their inner judgment. ESFJs are guardians of the emotions of others. They are always looking to protect others feelings above all other things. In decision making they always consider how their choice will impact all those involved. They enjoy adhering to tradition and will go to great lengths to follow standard social protocols (Butt “ESFJ”).

 

ESFJs are excellent leaders. They are driven and work hard in order to accomplish the task at hand. Their respect for protocol and tradition means that they strictly follow seniority and expect others to do the same. They tend to view the world as either right or wrong and have little tolerance for anything in- between.

 

ESFJ weaknesses include reacting too quickly and emotionally in a situation that would be better dealt with in a pragmatic fashion. They may also be so absorbed into their own viewpoints that they begin dismissing those of others’. ESFJs are also sensitive to criticism and may be overly concerned with how other people perceive them (“Portrait of an ESFJ”).

 

Careers

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • Follow protocol when working with an
  • Recall that the ESFJ will always take the feelings of others into
  • ESFJs prefer to be However, if they are in a high position, respect them.
  • Be direct and concise with
  • Do not insult/criticize their

 

 

 

ISTJ

Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging

via GIPHY

 

Description

ISTJs are loyal, logical, and responsible. The primary function of the ISTJ is Introverted Sensing, which means they like things to be quantifiable. The auxiliary function is Extraverted Thinking, so they will  willingly speak if only data is to be presented; otherwise, the ISTJ will remain silent. They work with facts and take a methodical approach towards solving problems. They will also put themselves at risk to carry out any task assigned to them. They generally know right from wrong in their areas of interest and responsibility which makes them devoted and dutiful individuals.

 

ISTJs would rather see consistency in people, as seeing others keep up their ends of the bargain can be extremely frustrating. They generally keep to themselves until approached. Nevertheless, ISTJs will not try to appeal to someone else’s opinions, they would rather be truthful than tactful (Butt “ISTJ”).

 

ISTJs may have a tendency to dismiss other people’s opinions without fully understanding them. They may also have selfish tendencies in which they ignore everyone else’s priorities. Structure is very important to them and this may come across as being rigid (“Portrait of an ISTJ”).

 

Careers

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • Do not expect an ISTJ to be tactful; always expect the
  • Offer constructive criticism, they are always willing to improve upon
  • Show the same devotion as ISTJs do; they value their
  • Talk through a problem with the

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description

ISFJ

Introverted Sensing Feeling Judging

 

 

ISFJs are traditional, supportive, and dutiful. The primary function is Introverted Sensing, meaning they remember data in detail and relate it back to reality. Their auxiliary function is Extraverted Feeling. They will tailor their needs to fit with those of others. Because they work so hard due to their dutiful nature, they are often taken advantage of or taken for granted.

 

The ISFJ works methodically, as they possess good memory and analytical abilities. They can also work in small groups or one-on-one situations because of their patience and ability to deal with others. ISFJs have few close friends, but to these friends, they are extremely loyal. However, ISFJs hate conflict, and will stay out of fights, as they will instead run to find an authority figure (Heiss “ISFJ”).

 

ISFJs prefer not to delegate work and hate to be treated as doormats, but are too modest to display their accomplishments. They also don’t pay as much attention to their own needs relative to those of others’. Conflict and criticism is not taken in well by the ISFJs as they are sensitive (“Portrait of an ISFJ”).

 

Careers

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • ISFJs prefer to “learn by doing”.
  • Show affirmation as ISFJs generally do not give themselves enough
  • Provide Meaningful
  • Follow procedure as ISFJs are

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description

ESTP

Extraverted Sensing Thinking Perceiving

 

 

ESTPs are “doers”, pragmatic, and spontaneous. The primary function of an ESTP is Extraverted Sensing in which they take in the world through their senses and view it in a concrete fashion. They auxiliary function is Introverted Thinking in which they are able to categorize data and apply it. They place  limited importance in concept and theory and prefer to focus on what needs to be done. They view rules as guidelines and will follow them so long as it is convenient. The ESTP often has enthusiasm for getting projects started, but often will lose interest before project completion (Butt “ESTP”).

 

ESTPs have an abundance of enthusiasm and can easily motivate those around them to work. They enjoy conversation and have a well-developed sense for the attitudes of others. They are direct, hands- on, risk-takers, and have little tolerance for those who hold them back from their goals. They can be insensitive of others feelings, but this is because of their drive to get things done.

 

ESTP weaknesses include not being readily able to grasp what other people are feeling let alone expressing their own. They may also be so preoccupied with the present that they don’t consider what happens in the long-range. This leads on to their tendency to take risks without thought. Because the ESTPs live in the present, they may not be good with commitments (“Portrait of an ESTP”).

 

Careers

 

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • Give tasks which provide immediate
  • Do not expect the ESTP to follow a set plan: they will complete their work in their own
  • Allow this type to be the initial motivator of a
  • Let the ESTP to work with their own methods rather than stifle their

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description

ESFP

Extraverted Sensing Feeling Perceiving

 

 

ESFPs are very sociable, harmonious, and spontaneous. The primary function of the ESFP is Extraverted Sensing, which means they let their feelings and experiences dictate their decisions. Their auxiliary function is Introverted Feeling, in which they know what they value. They are able to relate to others and seek to identify with those who share similar interests. They live in the here-and-now. They are extremely outgoing: they enjoy looking for new possibilities, people, and experiences.

 

ESFPs adore being in the spotlight, and revel in the excitement and drama they see in life. They are great at working with people, and most commonly find themselves working as a peacemaker in a group. They are extremely observant of others, and are generous and caring. They are very accepting of everyone, and treat everyone as a friend. They are practical, but love spontaneity (Butt “ESFP”).

 

ESFPs tend to be too materialistic. They may have the impression that they must purchase the best items. They may also not pay attention enough to their own needs because they prefer to live in the present and neglect the consequences of their actions. Because they are always excited by new things, they may have a problem with commitment (“Portrait of an ESFP”).

 

Careers

 

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • ESFPs prefer to be in the
  • Do provide the ESFP with new things to work on because they will get bored
  • Give the ESFP some room to do their own thing; they prefer to go with the
  • Do not start conflict as ESFPs will hold grudges against

 

 

 

ISTP

Introverted Sensing Thinking Perceiving

 

Description

ISTPs are independent, adaptable, and objective. Their primary function is Introverted Thinking which allows them to analyze data and notice inconsistencies. In turn, their auxiliary function is Extraverted Sensing which makes them hands-on people who process data through their five senses. The ISTP enjoys working with their hands while evaluating a complex system. They enjoy deconstructing and reconstructing a system to better learn how it works.

 

An ISTP is always looking for ways to be involved in their work and thrive in all-or-nothing situations. They work well in crises because they are quick to make decisions and to put their thoughts into action.

ISTPs are spontaneous and prefer being able to react to the current situation than follow a plan. The ISTP works best in an environment where they are able to work freely and view rules as a hindrance to their spontaneity (“Portrait of an ISTP”).

 

While they have little respect for rules imposed upon them, ISTPs strictly follow their own set of internal rules. If someone violates the principles that the ISTP holds in high regard, they become hostile and stubborn. They can be inconsiderate of others’ boundaries at times, but they are willing to accept people encroaching on their personal boundaries in the same fashion (Heiss “ISTP”).

 

Careers

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • Respect the personal beliefs of an
  • The ISTP will disregard rules set for them and work best without physical or mental
  • ISTPs are extremely
  • They are doers, not thinkers: ISTPs prefer hands-on

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description

ISFP

Introverted Sensing Feeling Perceiving

 

 

ISFPs are artistic, loyal, and harmonious. Their primary function is Introverted Feeling which allows them to know what they value and make judgments based on these values. They strive to connect with others who share similar ideals. In turn, their auxiliary function is Extraverted Sensing which makes them “earthy” people who have a love of aesthetic beauty (“Portrait of an ISFP”). They live in a world full of sensation possibilities and have a strong value system in which they constantly strive to meet in their own lives.

 

ISFPs will generally be inclined to choose careers which allow freedom for creativity and displaying their personal goals. They prefer flexibility and do not fare will with schedules. They learn best in a hands-on approach and may be bored with traditional methods which emphasize abstract thinking. Logic is secondary to the ISFP for they are uncomfortable dealing with objective systems. In contrast, they prefer subjectivity and love music and the arts.

 

Weaknesses of the ISFP include their tendency to be cynical which does not translate well onto others. They also prefer to live in the moment so the big picture may be omitted out of the ISFP’s goals. They have an extreme dislike of conflict and criticism because they seek harmony and are generally irritated when their personal space has been invaded.

 

Careers

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • ISFPs can see the positive in everyone but may need positive feedback for
  • Do not criticize the ISFP’s ideas and opinions for they do not respond well to
  • Assign projects that foster creativity without
  • Approach the ISFP by being direct and

 

 

 

ENTJ

Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Judging

 

Description

ENTJs are decisive, strategic, and natural leaders. Their primary function is Extraverted Thinking which allows them to be organized as well as aptly categorize things. They have the keen ability to see the consequences before acting on a plan. Because of their natural ability to devise contingency plans, they usually take on the role as the leader. They find themselves in charge because they have an inclination to give structure to a project. Rather than establishing plans, they look ahead and establish goals (Butt “ENTJ”).

 

ENTJs are willing to invest every resource (that they believe is efficient) into achieving something. They dislike errors and can be demanding. Because they are incredibly organized, inefficiency and personal problems that arise may not be tolerated by the ENTJ. Because of this, they may be perceived as harsh by their peers. ENTJs are quick decision makers and may have brilliant ideas. However, they may not be readily able to act upon their idea. As Extroverts and Thinkers, they are energized by challenging conversations.

 

ENTJs can be stubborn if new ideas do not coincide with their own. They have no problem with conflict and may appear argumentative. They have a tendency to be confrontational and may come across  as aggressive. Because of their natural leadership ability, they may appear to be controlling. ENTJs are not in tune with other’s feelings and have difficulty expressing their own emotions (“Portrait of an ENTJ”).

 

Careers

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • Do offer promising new ideas, ENTJs love hearing about new
  • Do be direct with the
  • Do not make up excuses, ENTJs will not tolerate
  • Do engage the ENTJ in lively, thoughtful

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description

ENTP

Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Perceiving

 

 

ENTPs are curious, innovative, and outgoing. Their primary function is Extraverted Intuition which allows them to see the different possibilities of a scenario or when making decisions. Their auxiliary function is Introverted Thinking. The ENTP is an individual who constantly seeks to understand the world around them. They are problem solvers and revel in the challenge of new tasks. They are always looking for new ways of doing things and often ignore rules and conventions. They are constantly looking to create change and enjoy dynamic situations.

 

ENTPs are concerned mostly with the future and find little interest in the details of the present. They tend to like to try new ideas and once proven move on to their next challenge rather than follow through on their current project. They do not follow procedure and prefer to look for new methods to improve efficiency (“Portrait of an ENTP”).

 

In their relationships with others, ENTPs can tend to be inconsiderate of those they consider to be inferior. They often argue for sake of learning from the argument. They will change positions on a subject in   order to learn as much as possible. Often times they will ignore others unless they have their immediate attention. In personal relationships they are fiercely loyal and will go to any lengths for those they care for. (Heiss “ENTP”)

 

Careers

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • Do back up ideas with sound evidence because the ENTP will analyze
  • Ask for explanations on concepts—they will be happy to explain
  • ENTPs seek to challenge the status quo and they can be
  • Be direct with the

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description

INTJ

Introverted Intuition Thinking Judging

 

 

INTJs are analytical, determined, and intensely individualistic. Their primary function is Introverted Intuition in which they process data internally through their intuition. Their auxiliary function is Extraverted Thinking in which they approach situations with empirical logic. They enjoy introspecting and coming to new understandings with the world. They are deeply motivated by inspiration. INTJs are idea generators and are willing to take every measure to ensure their ideas become reality. They have high standards  for themselves and a lesser extent for others. One can call them “perfectionists.” They seem to have a keen ability in improving anything of their interest (Heiss “INTJ”).

 

INTJs are also pragmatists and recognize their limits. They are known as system-builders and seek to apply theoretical models. According to BSM Consulting, they value intelligence, knowledge, and competence. INTJs dislike route memorization and learn best when they are able to develop their own system for learning in which they become absorbed into the subject.

 

INTJs can have trouble communicating in simple terms and can grow impatient for others whom cannot catch onto their idea. They can also be unwilling to adapt to new environments. They may be single- minded and dismiss all other viewpoints. They may be so reserved to the extent at which they will not share their idea before it is fully formed. INTJs have a tough time with people who make their decisions based on their emotions and traditional social niceties (“Portait of an INTJ”).

 

Careers

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • Do be direct with the INTJ and expect the truth from
  • Do offer constructive feedback, INTJs love to improve
  • Do not express an opinion unless you are ready to back it up with sound
  • Do not engage the INTJ in small talk and repetition of
  • Do ask for clarification of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description

INTP

Introverted Intuition Thinking Perceiving

 

 

INTPs are reserved, logical, and abstract individuals. The primary function of the INTP is Introverted Thinking while their auxiliary function is Extraverted Intuition. This makes them abstract thinkers who are more interested in theoretical concepts and ideas than what is immediate. The INTP is an individual who is constantly seeking knowledge and understanding. They are often disengaged from the world around them and prefer to observe and understand rather than participate and work. They approach situations objectively and seek to understand. They are problem solvers, but once they have thought through a solution they prefer to leave it to others to enact (James).

 

They have little concern for detail and prefer to look at a bigger picture. They are constantly analyzing the world around them and are more concerned with temporal change than all other things. If something has not moved and is of little use it will often disappear in the mind of the INTP (James).

INTPs are independent and believe others should be as well. They often look to learn proficiency in an area, but rarely look for mastery. For this reason they expect others to be beyond error.

 

Weaknesses of the INTP include unwilling to try new things—this is because the INTP may be uncomfortable with things they are not familiar with. They are not naturally in tune with other people’s feelings and may not display affection or approval when needed. When under stress, they may have an unhealthy habit of showing intense emotion which leads to other personal problems. The INTP may also appear caustic and indifferent to the opinions of others (“Portrait of an INTP”).

 

Careers

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • INTPs value logic above all else, so maintain logical
  • Do not insult an INTP or dismiss their values: they will get extremely
  • INTPs act like mirrors to those they are around: they reciprocate
  • Plans and schedules do not suit an INTP: give them freedom of
  • Be honest with an

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description

ENFJ

Extraverted Intuitive Feeling Judging

 

via GIPHY

 

ENFJs are altruistic, introspective, friendly, and idealistic. Their primary function is Extraverted Feeling, so they naturally work well in matters concerning other people. Their auxiliary function is Introverted Intuition which allows them to have a clear perception of the inner workings of the mind which makes them aware of other people’s needs.

 

The ENFJ is more reserved than other extraverted types. They refrain from expressing their own beliefs if it is in the best interest of those around them. ENFJs work more like chameleons or mirrors, rather than individuals to better suit other people. They are capable of expressing their own values, of course, but they would rather be supportive of others. However, they may sometimes feel alone in a group of many because they cannot be themselves (Butt “ENFJ”).

 

ENFJs prefer things to be well-organized but do not like to be forced to deal with logic and facts that do not connect to people. They like the idea of possibilities and thus prefer planning over their own achievements. Some may have difficulty making decisions and will rely on others to make decisions for them. Further, the ENFJ may also judge things too quickly based on their own morals and values without first analyzing a situation objectively (“Portrait of an ENFJ”).

 

Careers

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • The ESFJ works best by bringing out the shining qualities in
  • ESFJs are harmonious people; avoid
  • Provide the ESFJ with work relating to
  • Offer constructive criticism because ESFJs are extremely sensitive to
  • ESFJs need meaningful

 

 

 

ENFP

Extraverted Intuitive Feeling Perceiving

 

Description

ENFPs are animated, inspiring, and innovative. Their primary function is Extraverted Intuition which makes them people-oriented while their auxiliary function is Introverted Feeling. They are readily able to grasp feelings which make it easy for this type to connect with others. They convey themselves to other  people through speech, mannerisms, and expression. ENFPs enjoy both ideas and people: they wish to be helpful and are generally admired. They are also charming, for which most ENFPs are outgoing and friendly (Heiss “ENFP”).

 

However, they also have a short attention span and many emotional needs. When in new relationships, they have a tendency to strive to be the center of attention. They can be intellectual and serious, but  at the same time, they can be eagerly playful. Their judgment usually gives rise to humor, but if their feelings are too open, they may drive people away.

 

ENFP weaknesses include their extreme dislike of conflict and criticism in which they can respond with intense emotions. This is because they strive for harmony and cannot tolerate situations that do not go their way. ENFPs may also have a tendency to be smothering because of their enthusiastic demeanor (“Portrait of an ENFP”).

 

Careers

 

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • Give the ENFP flexibility for he/she is unhappy with strict
  • ENFPs bring out the best in other’s—give the ENFP a task involving people-management.
  • Do not assign them mundane
  • Be direct with the

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description

INFJ

Introverted Intuitive Feeling Judging

 

 

INFJs are creative, compassionate, gentle, and complex. Their primary function is Introverted Intuition while their auxiliary function is Extraverted Feeling in which they are deeply concerned with their relationships with others as well has humanity at large. They have a desire to contribute to the welfare of all and find it rewarding in helping other people realize their human potential (Butt “INFJ”).

 

INFJs value solitude as well as the opportunity to concentrate on what is important to them. Their forte is writing because they are able to convey their ideas clearly. If they find something particularly interesting, they will go beyond and research that specific topic and often ruminate over it. They are often perceived as the “model” student. Despite working well with groups and individuals, they need time to recharge. They have a natural ability to relate to others and usually find themselves to be the one their friends confide in (“Portrait of an INFJ”).

 

INFJs have high expectations for themselves and others which may lead to conflict. In turn, because they are sensitive people, they strongly dislike criticism as well as conflicts and may not readily be able to tolerate it. They may start losing confidence and become unhappy. They are perfectionists and always wondering whether or not they are living up to their full potential. They also do not believe in compromising because they have strong ideals.

 

Careers

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • Do not criticize the
  • Be open, honest, and
  • Do offer meaningful
  • Do allow for creativity, INFJs love working on collaborative projects
  • Be

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description

INFP

Introverted Intuitive Feeling Perceiving

 

 

INFPs are introspective, creative, and idealistic. Their primary function is Introverted Feeling in which they know what they value. They have the ability to relate to others. Their auxiliary function is Extraverted Intuition in which they are able to see different paths/ways of doing something. They recognize different possibilities and long to find their meaning in life. They seek to find the underlying meaning of things.

Almost everything experienced by the INFP contributes to their value system which is then evaluated by the INFP as crucial or trivial (Butt “INFP”).

 

The INFP is driven by the thought of making the world a better place. INFPs are great listeners and are always to willing to help people. Despite being reserved, they are quite warm with people they are familiar with. They are also generally very flexible. However once an opinion/decision violates their values, they will aggressively defend their cause. INFPs enjoy learning in environments where they can be flexible and creative (“INFP Personality Types”).

 

INFPs can be overly sensitive to criticism, even in situations where no criticism was intended. They may also be overtly consumed with an idea in their mind that they begin to ignore anything that goes against their values. They may also be unable to let go of a problem and themselves to become engrossed by it. They may also develop strong grudges towards other people whom they think have oppressed them (“Portrait of an INFP”).

 

Careers

 

 

 

Key Elements to Working with this Type

  • Listen attentively to the
  • Do not overtly shun their
  • Be open and

 

 

 

Criticism of the Type Indicator

 

1.   Is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator reliable?

According to the Myers & Briggs Foundation, “Personality is qualitative and therefore difficult to measure, so psychological instruments cannot have the same consistency you would expect from, say, a ruler. But there are generally accepted standards for psychological instruments.” It should be recognized that the MBTI measures preferences, not the actual person. The type descriptions in this manual are archetypes. Every person is unique in their own way. On a retest, people generally scored the same three or four preferences 75% to 90% of the time (“Reliability”). When a person does change type on a retest, it is generally a dichotomy where their preference for one or the other is in between– meaning 40% to 55%. It should also be noted that children are still developing so their preferences change.

 

2.   The MBTI forces people to exert a self-fulfilling prophecy as specified by their corresponding personality type. In a sense, people act what they read.

When taking the MBTI, people should go in with an open mind and recognize that there are countless numbers of type descriptions out in the internet. People can readily write whatever it is they please. Taking information in the wrong way may lead to miscommunication. It is important to note that the key purpose of the MBTI is to help people recognize their own strengths and weaknesses as well as those of others—it is not a medium designed to make people act a certain way. One should make their own decisions and judgment when taking the test as well as reading their own type descriptions.

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

All personality type information unless otherwise cited is from Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type by Isabel Myers. All personality type descriptions and careers unless otherwise cited is from typelogic.com and personalitypage.com.

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